We organize ourselves into various kinds of social groupings, such as nomadic bands, villages, cities, and countries, in which we work, trade, play, reproduce, and interact in many other ways. Unlike other species, we combine socialization with deliberate changes in social behavior and organization over time. Consequently, the patterns of human society differ from place to place and era to era and across cultures, making the social world a very complex and dynamic environment. Insight into human behavior comes from many sources.
Sociologists, anthropologists, historians, and psychologists, in their study of different cultures and historical eras, have noted how malleable people's drinking habits are.
If one can't detect the difference between drinking in this setting, or at Jewish or Chinese weddings, or in Greek taverns, and that in Irish working-class bars, or in Portuguese bars in the worn-out industrial towns of New England, or in run-down shacks where Indians and Eskimos gather to get drunk, or in Southern bars where men down shots and beers--and furthermore, if one can't connect these different drinking settings, styles, and cultures with the repeatedly measured differences in alcoholism rates among these same groups, then I can only think one is blind to the realities of alcoholism.
Ways of drinking and of thinking about drinking are learned by individuals within the context in which they learn ways of doing other things and of thinking about them--that is, whatever else drinking may be, it is an aspect of culture about which patterns of belief and behavior are modeled by a combination of example, exhortation, rewards, punishments, and the many other means, both formal and informal, that societies use for communicating norms, attitudes, and values.
Potentially, each individual is linked, directly or indirectly, to all members of his or her culture A Social Explanation, Aldine, Chicago,p. Thus, how we learn to drink and continue to drink is determined most by the drinking we observe, the attitudes about drinking we pick up, and the people we drink with.
In this booklet we will explore the relationship between cultural assumptions and educational messages about alcohol and the likelihood that people will drink in ways that are harmful to themselves or others.
One popular approach to reducing drinking problems is to reduce the overall amount of alcohol a society consumes. However, it is remarkable how little correspondence there is between the amount of alcohol consumed per person in different societies and the problems this alcohol consumption generates.
In a comprehensive study of alcohol consumption patterns and outcomes in European and English-speaking countries, none of the 10 countries with a history of Temperance movements showing a concern with the destructive consequences of drinking had as high a per capita alcohol consumption as any of the countries without Temperance movements.
In cultures where ambivalent attitudes toward drinking prevail, the incidence of alcoholism is also high. A population that drinks daily may have a high rate of cirrhosis and other medical problems but few accidents, fights, homicides, or other violent alcohol-associated traumas; a population with predominantly binge drinking usually shows the opposite complex of drinking problems A group that views drinking as a ritually significant act is not likely to develop many alcohol-related problems of any sort, whereas another group, which sees it primarily as a way to escape from stress or to demonstrate one's strength, is at high risk of developing problems with drinking.
The solitary drinker, so dominant an image in relation to alcohol in the United States, is virtually unknown in other countries.
The same is true among tribal and peasant societies everywhere. Whereas the French soldiers could be allowed to forage freely, the British soldiers, when they encountered alcohol, could be expected to drink to unconsciousness.
Yet others were coming in not at all disgusted Our soldiers could not resist wine. Modern epidemiological and sociological research consistently documents these cultural differences.
Using DSM-III, an international team led by John Helzer discovered the following remarkable differences in alcohol abuse rates among different cultures, including two native Asian groups: There is about a fiftyfold difference in lifetime prevalence between these two samples and Shanghai, where the lowest lifetime prevalence of 0.
For as long as American epidemiologists have measured drinking problems, they have found clearcut, significant, and persistent group differences. It is notable that the groups with the lowest incidence of alcohol abuse, the Jews and Italians, have a the lowest abstinence rates among these groups, and b especially the Italians the highest consumption rates.
Two sociologists searched for Jewish alcohol abusers in an upstate NY city in the belief that alcoholism rates among American Jews had risen. Instead, they found an astoundingly low rate of 0. George Vaillant, studying inner-city ethnic men in Boston over a year period, found that Irish-Americans were 7 times as likely to develop alcohol dependence as Italian-Americans--this despite the Irish-Americans having a substantially higher abstinence rate.
A sociologist who reviewed 17, arrest records in New York's Chinatown from to found that not one arrest noted public drunkenness. An anthropological study," pp. There are also clear and distinct differences in alcohol abuse rates by socioeconomic status.Cultural and religious teachings often influence beliefs about the origins and nature of mental illness, and shape attitudes towards the mentally ill.
In addition to influencing whether mentally ill individuals experience social stigma, beliefs about mental illness can affect patients’ readiness and willingness to seek and adhere to treatment.
American and British cultural influence, Social and cultural features of the s, Australia's social and cultural history in the post-war period, History, Year 9, NSW British influence on the Australian culture British settlers arrived in Australia in and the extent of the British influence .
Context - historical, cultural or social - can have an influence on the way literary works are written or received. Discuss with reference to two works you have studied.
The level of efficiency of a literary work does not depend solely on the story, b. AN EXAMINATION OF THE IMPACT OF CULTURE ON INTERACTIONS: on cross-cultural differences. Time pressure, on the other hand, makes cultural differences, specifically the way that criticism is delivered and the extent of relational-versus-task there must be conditions under which specific cultural differences influence cross-cultural.
We can have perfect confidence that God is capable of accurately relaying His Word to us in a way that we can understand.
As such, it is crucial that we learn how to interpret properly so that we can determine the Author’s Intended Meaning (AIM) rather than forcing our own ideas into the text. Social, economic and political context in Kenya Key facts The Republic of Kenya is a country in Eastern Africa, with a population of approximately million people.